For the most part BSD uses the same system locations as linux. There are some differences though. Here is a list of notable locations in the FreeBSD filesystem.
/etc Generic system-specific configuration information. /etc/defaults Default versions of system configuration files. /etc/mail Extra sendmail(8) configuration and other MTA configuration files. /etc/ppp Configuration for both user- and kernel-ppp programs. /etc/namedb Default location for named(8) data. Normally named.conf and zone files are stored here. /usr/local/etc Configuration files for installed applications. May contain per-application subdirectories. /usr/local/etc/rc.d rc(8) scripts for installed applications. /var/db Automatically generated system-specific database files, such as the package database and the locate(1) database.
FreeBSD primarily uses the UFS filesystem, but other filesystems are also available (ex: ext2, zfs). FreeBSD uses a very different partition table from linux, having a disk work on both can be tricky.
UFS can be mounted readonly on linux, exfat works everywhere but needs drivers.
This is just a list of common filesystem types. See Programs: filesystems for many more filesystems.
ufs zfs fat32 exfat ext2 ext4
FreeBSD doesn't mount procfs by default.
If you'd like to use it, you can mount it yourself.mount -t procfs proc /proc
or dump it in your fstab# /etc/fstab proc /proc procfs rw 0 0
linprocfs (Linux Emulation)
FreeBSD also ships with linprocfs, which emulates a subset of linux procfs.mount -t linprocfs linproc /compat/linux/proc# /etc/fstab linproc /compat/linux/proc linprocfs rw 0 0
BSD's partition management is a little different from linux, and it's setup varies depending on if you're using a GUID partition table or a MBR partition table.
If you're using MBR, you first set up a partition, and then slices of that partition for BSD to occupy. This is a means of sidestepping the MBR limit of 4 logical partitions before dividing it into extended partitions. I'm not entirely sure why this is necessary, but GUID is a cleaner, and superior solution and worth moving towards.
If you're using GPT, you don't need to worry about partitions at all. You simple create slices in your GUID partition table.
A typical freeBSD install has at least 3 partitions with the three following types:
gpart glabel linuxfdisk
Create GUID table## list all disks sudo gpart list sudo camcontrol devlist (to see windows labels) ## wipe disk mbr, and set up mbr: sudo gpart destroy -F da1 ## destroy mbr gpart create -s gpt da1 ## alternatively you could use mbr
Dividing Disk into Slices
You will need to create slices(partitions) in multiples of your sector size You may only use freebsd-boot and freebsd-ufs with newer boot schemes like gpt (vs mbr) for mbr your boot type should be freebsd
- There are 1048576 kilobytes in 1 gb
- List sector size with 'gpart list'gpart add -t freebsd-boot -l gpboot -b 40 -s 512K da1 gpart add -s 160G -t freebsd-ufs da1 gpart show da1
If you need anything fancier:
- -b = starting block (not byte on filesystem)
- -s = size of partition in half kilobytes
- -t = partition type
Gpart creates partitions, and newfs will automatically update your disklabel. no need for the disklabel command. You are now ready to create a filesystem.sudo newfs -U /dev/gpt/gprootfs da1p1 sudo newfs -U da1p2
- man ffs,fdisk,gpart,bsdlabel, camcontrol